How well do you understand the strategic elements of your project?

Strategy and TacticsStrategy, Execution, tactics, goals, etc – how does this all fit together? I encounter this question every now and then. I’ll explain this in one-liners.

The order is intentional because one feeds the other, macro to micro. Also, illustrated with a hypothetical example.

1.MISSION – What does the company stand for?

2. VISION – Where does the company want to be in future? Always, think 3-5 years down the road. Big, important things here. E.g. To make DHL the largest delivery company in USA

3. GOALS – they are the translation of the vision and answer “what do we want to do?” It is helpful to organize the goals under broader labels, e.g.  Product Design & Development, Financial, Branding, Marketing, etc. Some common business goals are, increase profit, improve customer loyalty, create brand presence in Europe, etc. E.g: Increase top line revenue, Increase volume, improve brand (company-image)

4. OBJECTIVES – are quantifiable metrics that show progress toward stated goals.  Objectives are specific, measurable, and have a defined completion date. E.g. Some objectives could be maximize time delivering packages, deliver more packages per stop, deliver grocery along-with packages, minimize downtime, contribute to community activities, etc. 

5. STRATEGY – How to achieve an objective or a goal? E.g. some strategies to achieve objective could be – optimize delivery time and routes; create partnerships with grocery vendors; group deliveries, etc

6. EXECUTION – How do you deliver on the strategy? E.g. Run a marketing campaign to showcase that DHL is more than fastest package delivery company. DHL can now deliver grocery! 

7. TACTICS – These are actions/activities taken to achieved stated objective. E.g. deliver between 7-9 AM; deliver both sides of road in one-go, allow customers to drop off packages at grocery stores, etc.

If you want to explore more, read mission, vision statements for Coca ColaGoogle, Apple. Few other examples here.

Treat these as living documents and refine during every offsite Strategy Review sessions (or as needed)

Except for company’s mission which does not change that often, all other statements should be treated as “living documents” that are changed as the needs of the business change. It is not one time creation to be stored in a safe place. If you don’t use them, you have wasted your time.

While on project …. ASK

It’s always good to introduce clients to this terminology before beginning of any strategy engagement to ensure alignment. Better yet, I’d paste it to the wall through the duration of strategy sessions.

Also, while on project, it’s always good to ask  your clients about projects’ stated goals and objectives. If you don’t know them, how do you know if you have been working on the right projects?



Ways to derive IT Strategy

In general, IT Strategy is derived from corporate and business strategy. While this is true for most part, there are other ways to craft/derive IT Strategy. Few ideas below.

IT Strategy could be based off –
1) Continuous improvement of business critical processes and core operational processes
How? Assess performance -> Develop plans for improvement -> Close the gaps
Note: These plans should point back to IT Agenda

2) examining the role of new technologies
– determining whether new technologies like Cloud Computing, Virtualization, Wireless etc would reduce IT costs and/or enable the workforce to be more efficient

3) examining the role of social media
– anyone who is not paying attention to Social Media will be in history books in a chapter right next to dinosaurs! Companies especially in Consumer Business, Retail, Transportation etc should paying attention to what customers are saying about their products and use the feedback as improvement opportunities. Heard F-Commerce? If not, read more here

Detailed analysis of each of the above would essentially translate to projects (read: Improvement Areas) in either in Applications, Infrastructure, Data/information flow, addressing IT staff issues/skills etc. This is where the rubber meets the road i.e., strategy translation to execution. A quote which I really like –

“Without strategy, execution is aimless. Without execution, strategy is useless.”
— Morris Chang, CEO, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company

Improvement idea can come in any time and by anyone across the organization. So the development of IT strategy should be never-ending series of discussions across a range of settings, including Senior Management meetings, discussions with Tech folks at water cooler, feedback from Customer Service etc.

What do you think?

What Strategy are you crafting?

I often get asked this question. The textbook approach to developing strategy uses a simple approach – Where are we today? Where do we want to be tomorrow? How are we going to get from here to there. In large organizations with several BU, there could be several strategies running at any time. The question is – are these strategies all working to achieving a common corporate objective? How well do these strategies align with corporate strategy? Well …. let’s understand the basics first. In Fortune 500 organizations, there are several different types of strategies, as depicted below:

No matter where you operate, it is imperative that the current strategy is clearly tied to higher level strategy. For example, if you are working on Business Strategy, then this has to clearly tie back to Corporate strategy (alternatively, Corporate Strategy should be one of your inputs/drivers).

Corporate strategy is concerned with overall business to meet stakeholders, customers and board’s expectations. Corporate strategy is usually spelled out in mission statement.

Business unit strategies include Marketing Strategy, HR Strategy, IT/Technology Strategy, Sales Strategy, etc. The emphasis is on short and medium term plans and is limited to the domain of each department’s functional responsibility. Some of these strategies even though focussed on achieving business unit objectives may include dimensions that are beyond the scope of a single business unit. Also, a lot depends on how these organizations/BU are structured – centralized, decentralized, or hybrid structure. Say for example, if each business unit has its own Marketing department, it may make sense, or rather the business unit may have its own Marketing Strategy. However, if the organization has centralized Marketing division, then a single cohesive organization-wide Marketing Strategy might exist.

Operational Strategy works as silo of Business Unit strategy with operational related activities and no budget of its own.

Understanding the big picture is very important esp. when having a conversation with C-level executives. Having a big picture view like above, helps not just in Strategy creation but also in areas of PPM, Change Management, designing org structure, new product development etc.

What does all this tell you? Well, before you jump onto Strategic engagements, try to learn and understand the organization structure from the perspective of how business is organized, conducted and the hierarchy amongst them. Read the board minutes, if you are lucky to get access to it (I haven’t read one so far, but I think I may get lucky one of these days!) Strategic plan, strategic choice and strategic analysis are very important topics for senior executives and it only makes sense for one to be fully equipped before engaging in a conversation.

IT Cost Containment must start from CIO organization

We often hear the same set of challenges for CIO – reduce IT costs, align with Business to provide strategic value, etc. Very often, CIOs and IT Managers find it difficult as to where to start. Well, let’s start with the first one – reduce IT costs, before others. Off course, there are several ways to address the “IT Cost” puzzle, however, Gartner’s “IT Cost Containment Framework” provides a good starting point to identify opportunities for IT Cost Containment.

In Gartner’s words, this framework ought to be looked at as best pratices for saving money on IT (bottom-line benefits).

Gartner identifies 3 focus areas –

  • Link costs to demand
  • Reduce resource costs
  • Change operational practices

Some techniques just save money or delay expenditures while others provide business benefits because they reduce complexity and/or provide flexibility and also improve service levels, increase agility and also reduce risks. Few of these techniques take time but some of these are easy to implement (relative to others).

Short-term Opportunities:
Few quick hits could be achieved in areas of:
2. IT PMO + 3. IT Governance: Instituting PMO helps centralize processes, institute standards, avoids duplicate projects, reduce cost overruns, provide better visibility to management etc.

24. IT Operations Process Improvement: Instituting ITIL framework will improve operations and release/deployment activities

25. Apps Dev Process Improvement: Instituting PMI‘s Project Management methodology for managing projects, standardizing development frameworks like RUP, Agile etc for development/testing activities, instituting good quality management practices etc

Reduce Technology cost (11,12,13): Several ways here – Evaluate software/hardware costs, usage and negotiate SLAs or contracts accordingly. Explore and evaluate Cloud, Virtualization, SaaS, open-source and other emerging Web2.0 technologies. Although such actions may not necessarily generate any short-term benefits, but long-term (>5yrs) organizations will benefit from such techniques. This is one area where lots of companies are really getting smart.

Long-term Opportunities:
Few others are long-term programs, would require a change in culture, and executive management support, like for example:
8. Selective Sourcing + 9. Offshore Outsourcing: With right strategy, outsourcing is sure-fire way to save money. Outsource organizations non-value add activities at fraction of cost to BRIC countries and focus on value-add activities to business and customer

Organizations should go after quick wins first and show-case the benefits of using such a framework for IT cost reduction opportunities, before embarking on ones which has a wider organization impact from people perspective. The main THEME of such an initiative such be essentially to (a) reduce costs as much as possible without negatively impacting business critical/value-add services (b) identify and cut waste with process/procedural changes and (c) charge for all IT services (IT Chargeback model).

Now, the reason I say that Cost Containment must start from CIO organization is due to the fact that IT folks generally have access to plethora of data. With the right use of information gathering tools, a good amount of information can be obtained, for further analysis (jointly with business). Hence, I say that CIO’s organization should drive this effort.

In this day and age when every organization is working towards getting lean and agile, it is imperative that CIO’s office take concrete actions to clean up their departments. IT Cost Containment should be treated like a Program (continuous improvement cycle) just like Application Rationalization, and not a project!

Execute “Application Rationalization” to manage and optimise your Application Portfolio (suggest this to your CIO and get some brownie points!)

All the organizations, especially CIO office, face the imperative to reduce IT costs, improve operations, reduce risks and improve customer service – all the time (more so in this economy). When efforts to do so are not aligned with business objectives, organizations end up spending millions of dollars on initiatives with only short-term benefits. One way to address is this issue is with “Application Rationalization”. If Application Rationalization is coupled with right Enterprise Architecture, IT Strategy, sound Project Management principles, organizations can improve bottom-line benefits and strive for top-line growth.

What is Application Rationalization?
Application Rationalization is a process of analyzing the applications in the enterprise to determine overlapping functionalities, unused applications, bottlenecks in systems – with a goal of improved efficiency, cost reduction and effective Business-IT alignment.

Most of the enterprises have proliferation of applications across departments with no control. Research shows that as much as 80% of IT budgets go in just maintaining the current systems. So, over time, there are several duplicated efforts, resulting in increased costs, increased time to market and thereby defeating business agility. So how does an organization understand what applications are worthy of additional investment, replacement or retirement? Answer: Application Rationalization.

The biggest benefit, in my experience, is that Application Rationalization helps CIO’s and IT Managers, understand their current environment better (what services are provided and associated costs to develop/operate them) and provides starting point for improvising IT. There are several other benefits as well –

  • Helps enterprise get lean and more efficient
  • Helps enterprise focus on high business value projects
  • Reduced IT costs and in particular, Operational costs with significant service improvement
  • Helps eliminate software/hardware maintenance costs
  • Helps organization invariably think about emerging technologies like Web 2.0, Virtualization, Cloud computing etc, while crafting future roadmap
  • Eliminates duplicate functionality, aids in building centralized enterprise services
  • Reduce points of failure
  • Clear SLAs
  • Predict performance and scalability more accurately, and many more

In fact, Application Rationalization could aid in building a sound Enterprise Architecture, thereby supporting Enterprise Business Strategy.

What factors should be considered while analyzing applications:
Applications have to be analyzed from 4 perspectives – Business, Technology, Operational, and Financial

  • What is the business value of these applications?
  • Development, Training cost spent already and ongoing Operational costs (includes hardware, software maintenance and licensing costs)
  • Business processes these applications support
  • Total users (types, geography)
  • Performance and scalability of these application
  • Usability and User Experience of these application
  • Dependency amongst applications

These perspectives are combined to determine the posture of the application, and thereby determine the appropriate remediation strategy, and to provide recommendations for managing the application portfolio over time.

Methodology/Approach for Application Rationalization
Organizations can use a simple 3-step methodology to strengthen and optimize their application portfolio.

Step 1: Collect, validate the application data (Build Application Inventory)
This step entails collecting and building the application inventory, which should include major data elements like –

  • Name and description of application
  • Business and IT owners
  • Application type
  • Business processes enabled
  • Business value/criticality
  • User information
  • Costs (Internal Personnel, External Personnel, Hardware, Software, Other External Costs)
  • Application architecture and Design
  • Tools and technologies
  • Data quality
  • Application business quality
  • Security
  • Regulatory compliance
  • Risk profile etc

Step 2: Perform application assessments along 4 perspectives (Analyze Portfolio)
Each application in the portfolio is analyzed along 4 perspectives as stated above, to determine the business, technology and enterprise fit. This is done with stakeholder interviews, workshops, research and analysis activities. Analysis should include identifying the KPIs and metrics to measure the ROI on these applications.

Step 3: Determine Transition Roadmap
Identify the Problems/opportunities, Alternative approaches and best actions for managing applications over expected life spans. For each application, determine whether to –

  • Remediate
  • Technical renovation/enhancement
  • Functional enhancement
  • Replace (COTS or custom)
  • Sunset/eliminate/decommission
  • Consolidate
  • Continue maintenance

With this, a final set of applications and business functionalities are well-defined, in alignment with Business Strategy and goals. This is the first strategic level where business strategy stating the target application portfolio is defined. A clear application transition road-map (implementation, timeframe) should be developed at the end of this step. This strategy should be rehashed several times to drive the organization closer to its target application portfolio and thereby business goals.

In order to demonstrate early benefits, identify “low hanging fruits” (alternatively said, decommissioning of the unused/deprecated applications should be the first activity).

What next?
The output of Application Rationalization activity is the “Application Transition Roadmap” -> which should feed into Investment Portfolio Management to fund these new Application initiatives. The funded projects are then fed to Project Portfolio Management process for execution.

Application Rationalization should be part of continuous rolling wave IT Project and a part of framework for management of IT Investments. As with any initiative, it is important to understand the big picture first, and then take a phased approach with industry leading practices in Project and Quality management while executing the Application Rationalization initiative.

There are several challenges that have to be overcome during Application Rationalization effort – 1) Managing all the stakeholders or business owners of application (remember legacy/old applications have multiple owners) (2) Management committment and buy-in for this initiative throughout the process (3) Not treating this as one time effort, rather use this framework as part of continuous IT Investment Portfolio Management process.

All the IT Managers are constantly thinking about this, are you?

IT Risk Management – Considerations and Framework for Risk Management

Risk Management has become one of the key agenda items for Corporate Board lately, particularly IT Risk Management. Senior executives are now paying more and more attention to IT Risks, IT Governance and its importance in Business/IT Strategy and Business-IT alignment.

But wait, what is IT risk? It’s any threat to IT assets (applications, infrastructure, data, and security) and performance impacting business processes or organization. Risk Management is not about avoiding risk. The aim of risk management is not to eliminate risk, rather to manage the risks. Every organization has risk, the only difference is scale.

What is IT Risk Management? IT Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of IT risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.

CIO Index has an excellent article on Information Technology and Corporate Governance. In it, the author lays out 7 key areas of risk that CIO’s need to discuss, strategize and budget for, as follows:

  1. Business Continuity Planning/Disaster Recovery Planning (BCP/DRP)
  2. Information security and data integrity
  3. Sourcing and outsourcing
  4. Performance measurement
  5. Regulatory non-compliance
  6. IT strategy and spends
  7. IT management infrastructure

These IT risks are not just for CIO’s understanding but its imperative that Managers involved in crafting IT Strategy get a deep understanding about the risks as well as possible risk mitigation strategies.

Why Is It Important to Manage Risk?The principle reason for managing risk in an organization is to protect the mission and assets of the organization. Therefore, risk management must be a management function rather than a technical function.

IT Risk Management – Who’s responsibility is it?
In my mind, anything which impacts the entire organization should be managed from the top (i.e. top-down approach). That way, duties can be segregated amongst the ranks of organization. In case of IT Risk Management, duties can be segregated as follows:

  1. defining the IT Risk Governance structure and providing guidance on formulating risk strategy (Corporate Board, with CIO driving this effort);
  2. translation of strategy to execution i.e., defining risk management approach, and establishing organization-wide consistency in risk management (Steering committee should bear this responsibility);
  3. owning and addressing these risks (individual business and/or IT leads)

Framework for IT Risk Management:
To effectively understand and communicate IT risk, and well-defined consistent framework is absolutely essential. This ensures that everyone’s using the same language and terminology. In general, the following four step framework should suffice for effective IT Risk management.

Step 1: Risk Identification – The purpose of this step is to identify the risks to the IT system. Risks occur in IT systems when vulnerabilities (i.e., flaws or weaknesses) in the IT system or its environment can be exploited by threats (i.e. natural, human, or environmental factors). This phase should identify the vulnerability of IT assets and their threats. A precursor to this is to identify all the IT assets (i.e. scan the entire IT organization) to document how these IT assets correlate with business.

Step 2: Risk Analysis – Risk analysis involves both “Qualitative” and “Quantitative” risk analysis

Step 3: Risk Mitigation – The purpose of identifying and analyzing the risk helps the organization directs the resources and cost. There are few strategies for managing positive risks (also called opportunities) and negative risks, as described below:

  • Negative Risk

    • Avoid – do something to make sure it does not happen
    • Transfer – pay or get someone else to handle the risk
    • Mitigate – take some action to reduce the likelihood of the risk happening
    • Accept – do nothing
  • Positive Risk

    • Exploit – do something to make sure it does happen
    • Share – spread the opportunities
    • Enhance – take some action to increased the likelihood of the risk happening
    • Accept – do nothing

Step 4: Risk Monitoring and Control – Risk monitoring and control is the continuous process of identifying and analyzing new risk, keeping track of these new risks and forming contingency plans incase they arise. 

The results of IT Risk Management should be documented in Risk Assessment Matrix, sample template below:

There are many different frameworks in market for Risk assessment. ISACA, the Information Systems Audit and Control Association has just released an initiative called “Enterprise Risk: Identify, Govern and Manage IT Risk, The Risk IT Framework”, based of COBIT.

In Summary, IT Risk management practices allow the organization to protect information and business process commensurate with their value. To ensure the maximum value of risk management, it must be consistent and repeatable, while focusing on measurable reductions in risk.

Aon just released a study that showed that those organizations that adopted a focus on risk management saw benefits that include enhanced shareholder value, a reduction in their total cost of risk, strengthened business resiliency and increased operational efficiency.

How Technology can aid in meeting Company’s Strategic goals? Few considerations …

McKinsey Quarterly has an excellent article on “An IT growth strategy for insurers” – an interview with Generali Deutschland’s COO. Even though the article is geared towards Insurance industry and its trends, many ideas discussed still holds true for other industries as well. Part of this article talks about technologies like Facebook, and Smartphone applications playing an important role in Company’s future. I see 2 recurring themes (rather, pain points) in most interviews with C-level executives – (a) Lack of Business-IT alignment and (b) Inadequate IT skills & capabilities in Execution.

“…… interactions of business executives with IT are often patchy, tending to focus narrowly on efficiency or localized investment, not on defining a coherent, company-wide IT portfolio. It’s not surprising that the industry’s failed product launches often result from inadequate or even nonexistent collaboration between IT and business. Both sides should work to develop forums and decision-making bodies where fruitful interactions can take place.”

4 takeaways for me:

  1. Company’s should include technologies like Social Media (in addition to Cloud Computing) while crafting future business strategies
  2. Read the market and competition
  3. Instill a collaborative environment between Business and IT (read: invite CIOs for all strategic and business meetings and get IT’s view on projects)
  4. Build IT Execution capabilities


Effectiveness Metrics for IT

Most software and IT organizations have great difficulty measuring organizational efficiency and effectiveness, despite a zillion metrics that have been proposed. CIO Dashboard has an excellent article on IT metrics for CIO. These metrics provide a simple holistic view for CIO to help him understand how IT is faring.

  1. Multi-year view on productivity, something like (Discretionary IT Spend)/(Total IT Headcount). This could normalized it with some factor for “effective” discretionary spend assuming all projects are not 100% effective.
  2. Percentage of discretionary spend categorized by type. A few categorization models include – Run | Grow | Transform (Howard Rubin) – or Infrastructure | Transactional | Informational | Strategic (Peter Weill/MIT) and see if it matches where the business is headed.
  3. Number of bug fixes and enhancement requests for top 20 systems. This is a quick indication of functional and technical health of applications.
  4. Average hours/days to close critical/high support issues. You gotta get the platform stable before focusing on other stuff.
  5. Percentage of projects using enterprise HW/SW standards. This is a good way to make sure there isn’t a proliferation of exceptions, non standards, multiple “enterprise” standards.
  6. Number of hours/days of training per person/team/area. Training is an unbelievably neglected area in IT – this shows you care about your people.
  7. Number of projects in each phase of the SDLC and average times in each stage (view of overall project pipeline, identify bottlenecks, etc.)
  8. Some kind of customer/user measure if the company has any customers using an online channel – avg time on the site, top content viewed, top issues/comments, etc.
  9. Percentage of projects who deliver 100% of their planned scope or %scope delivered. On-time/on-budget doesn’t mean as much as “did i deliver what the business needed?”
  10. Core application availability (not technical SLA stuff, rather apps availability when users need it)

Sure you can take each one of these and drill down further in various focus areas like Financial, project Management, Security, Compliance, Customers etc. Some of the metrics highlighted in yellow should be fairly easy to measure and should be measured – by individual project managers or ITIL Process Owners, which can then be rolled up to dashboards. Few other metrics should be measured by Program/Portfolio Managers or PMO.

Even though most of these are on operational/tactical side of IT, still these metrics provide enormous info to understand the current state of affairs in IT. The results can then be used to improvise IT operations and subsequently be focussed on Business-IT alignment. Companies should have strategies focussing on generating bottom-line benefits before embarking on strategies for generating top-line growth. In other words, focus on cleaning up your organization before advising Customers on what they should do.

IT Transformation done right at TalkTalk

McKinsey Quarterly does a great job publishing interview, POV, and thoughtware regularly. An article published today titled “Raising performance by reducing IT complexity: An interview with TalkTalk’s CIO” reinforced some of my thinking about what is important for IT Transformation.

One particular question caught my attention, which I call as Lessons learned. See excerpt below:

The Quarterly: Tell us about some of the factors needed to manage the transition successfully.
David Cooper: Most important was the definition of a clear strategy for harmonizing business processes and customer offerings across different brands. Each separate customer base had significant legacy products and processes. So the only way to move to a new system without drowning in complexity was to be pragmatic about how to handle affected customers under the new system without losing significant value in the process. Since all the business brands were delivering the same fundamental products to customers, we reasoned that it would be possible to harmonize the processes. But getting there required strong management from the start.

Furthermore, to make the transformation happen, we needed the agreement of key stakeholders on the overall vision, as well as their determination to make the changes succeed. This had to come not only from the IT side but also from the business side. In our case, we had the support of our CEO, who set out the
vision for a unified IT landscape as the way forward and united the organization.

Finally, it was critical to communicate, strongly and repeatedly, why we had embarked on this transformation and what the expected benefits would be. It helped that we were able to deliver some benefits relatively quickly. For example, nine months into the integration, it was suddenly possible to market to the entire TalkTalk base, and AOL customers suddenly could access TalkTalk products and features.

As can be read from CIO’s interview, building an Operating Model with Standardization, has provided bottom-line benefits (i.e. IT cost efficiency) to TalkTalk, and at the same time made the organization more agile to changing market/business needs.

3 key takeaways for me, from this interview:

  1. Strong Executive Management support (CEO onwards) is critical for transformation projects. A CEO has to set the clear Vision.
  2. Leader, someone with sufficient Business and IT knowledge, and detail-oriented, should drive a Transformation effort.
  3. Communication is critical! Leader has to reinforce the goals/objectives, benefits time-and-time again.

Yes, Transformation projects shouldn’t be a democracy but it should atleast be a Conversation amongst organizational ranks. So, people’s creative view about Transformation have to be factored-in during planning and execution of Transformation projects. One way to seek ideas is for Managers to socialize the concept and solicit feedback [think Brownbag lunch or “back of the napkin” bar conversation, as my previous Manager & I conversed frequently for ideas]

High-Level Transformation Approach:
Transformation in its broadest sense means “Change”. At the end of the day, organization taking Transformation initiative aim for business growth and improvement. Transformation should be a phased approach, broadly suggested below:

  • Phase 1: Create a Roadmap [The roadmap should be jointly created by Business and technology folks. The current state, opportunities for change, future desired state and their implications should be discussed here. Define the key outcome or success factors. A definitive Implementation timeline showing estimated timing and recommended sequencing of Transformation Roadmap projects MUST be created here]
  • Phase 2: Execute the Strategy laid out in Roadmap [Detailed Execution Plans, Project Management and Change Management are critical at this phase]
  • Phase 3: Leverage the transformed/implemented processes, technology, and organizational changes, to drive business results further

Companies undertaking a Transformation initiative should study on how other companies in their industry have done it, study Case Studies, discuss with fellow C-level executives, and establish exploratory group, before embarking on one.

What would be your suggestion for Executive embarking on a Transformation initiative?

IT CMF (IT Capability Maturity Framework)

Excellent ppt on IVI IT-CMF. This framework provides a fresh thinking to optimize business value derived from IT investments. This framework is postioned as a tool that can be used to deliver greater business value from IT while reducing the complexity of IT choices for CIOs.

IT Leads and CIO should definitely take a look at this framework – and determine the areas for improvement and/or build capability to better align IT with Business.

To learn more, visit IVI